A prova online para os candidatos às vagas de estágio da Folha aconteceu entre os dias 19 e 20 de dezembro. Na avaliação, eles precisaram responder 30 testes e uma questão dissertativa.
Confira abaixo o gabarito da prova, com as respostas corretas sublinhadas.
Gabarito da Prova
1. Margaret Keenan, 90, foi a primeira pessoa a receber a vacina da Pfizer/BioNTech no mundo. Ela celebrou dizendo que passará com os netos as festas de final de ano. Qual é a alternativa correta sobre imunizantes para Covid?
a) toda a compra de vacinas no país está centralizada e será feita pelo governo federal;
b) para usar a vacina da Pfizer, é preciso comprar freezers capazes de sustentar os -70°C;
c) já com o aval definitivo da Anvisa, o governador João Doria anunciou que espera começar a vacinação com a Coronavac, que o Instituto Butantan paulista está fabricando, em 25 de janeiro;
d) a vacina na qual Brasília aposta é a da Universidade de Oxford fabricada pela Fiocruz do Rio, que está sendo testada na Rússia;
e) as três fabricantes de seringas no país já receberam encomenda para a produção de uma leva grande; dizem que precisam de 15 dias para entregar
2. O presidente Jair Bolsonaro exaltou o que considera “perfeita harmonia” entre o governo e o Congresso Nacional e disse que “ninguém vai destruir” esse relacionamento, dois dias após o Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF) ter proibido a possibilidade de reeleição dos presidentes da Câmara, Rodrigo Maia (DEM-RJ), e do Senado, Davi Alcolumbre. Assinale a alternativa correta:
a) A eleição para as mesas diretoras do Congresso acontece simultaneamente à próxima eleição presidencial;
b) Além de acenar com uma reforma ministerial que ampliaria o espaço de partidos no Esplanada, o Executivo estaria associando a liberação de verba para emendas parlamentares ao voto em Renan Calheiros, candidato de Bolsonaro;
c) O deputado Arthur Lira (PP-AL), apoiado pelo Palácio do Planalto e um dos líderes do Centrão, afirma ter o apoio de oito partidos, inclusive do PSDB;
d) Havia uma expectativa de que os ministros do STF tomariam uma decisão que abrisse caminho ao menos para a reeleição de Davi Alcolumbre (DEM-AP) à presidência do Senado Federal;
e) A proibição à reeleição de Rodrigo Maia consolida o atual presidente da casa na posição de responsável por manter seu arco de aliados. Maia deu apoio público a Aguinaldo Ribeiro (PP-PB)
3. Sobre o assassinato da vereadora Marielle Franco, que completou mil dias, está certo afirmar que:
a) Marielle foi eleita pelo PSTU, era negra, ativista social, bissexual e mãe;
b) Embora dois ex-policiais tenham sido identificados como assassinos de Marielle, eles estão foragidos;
c) O Google se prontificou a fornecer as informações necessárias para investigação do caso;
d) A polícia concluiu que o assassinato foi executado por amadores; o atirador disparou da rua apenas quando o carro de Marielle estacionou;
e) Dois acusados de envolvimento com milícias, o policial reformado Ronnie Lessa e o ex-PM Élcio de Queiroz, estão presos como principais suspeitos de ser os autores materiais da execução, mas as investigações ainda não chegaram aos mandantes do crime.
4. Sobre racismo no futebol, é verdade que:
a) Os jogadores do PSG e do Istanbul Basaksehir abandonaram o campo após o quarto árbitro dizer ofensas racistas em relação a um integrante da comissão técnica do time turco;
b) Em 2014, houve a eliminação do Palmeiras das oitavas de final da Copa do Brasil, após a torcida chamar o goleiro Aranha, do Santos, de macaco;
c) Em fevereiro deste ano, o atacante brasileiro Moussa Marega, do Porto, deixou o campo na partida contra o Vitória de Guimarães, revoltado com as ofensas da torcida do seu ex-time, onde ele atuou na temporada 2016/17. Parte da torcida fazia gestos imitando macaco quando o atacante pegava na bola;
d) O técnico português Jorge Jesus, hoje no Barcelona, disse que “está muito na moda isso de racismo”, e completou: “Hoje, qualquer coisa que se diga contra um negro é sempre sinal de racismo, mas o mesmo a um branco já não é sinal de racismo.”
e) Em 2005, o argentino Diego Maradona foi levado a uma delegacia paulista, após o jogo do Quilmes contra o São Paulo, no Morumbi, por chamar o atacante Grafite de “negro de merda”
5. Assinale a alternativa correta sobre o mundo digital:
a) O Brasil é o principal alvo de hackers que sequestram bancos de dados, ataque conhecido como malware;
b) O WhatsApp já tem autorização do Banco Central para lançar ferramenta com pagamento feito dentro do aplicativo;
c) A retrospectiva do Twitter tem Donald Trump como a pessoa mais mencionada, #COVID19 como a hashtag mais usada e o anúncio da morte do ator Hugh Jackman como o tuíte mais curtido e mais retuitado;
d) A FTC, agência reguladora americana responsável por garantir o livre mercado, abriu processo contra o Google por práticas anticompetitivas. Pede, na Justiça, que WhatsApp e Instagram sejam restabelecidas como empresas separadas e concorrentes;
e) Plataformas de nuvem se tornaram o novo normal para muitas empresas com seus colaboradores trabalhando de casa. A tendência é que a mudança não seja passageira: os gastos globais em serviços de nuvem pública devem crescer 18,4% em 2021
6. Qual dessas notícias de economia é verdadeira?
a) Embora o ministro Paulo Guedes não queira falar sobre flexibilizar o teto de gastos, sua equipe já trabalha com essa possibilidade;
b) Paulo Guedes é contrário à flexibilização dos contratos de trabalho; defende a CLT pela reedição da Carteira de Trabalho Verde e Amarela;
c) Houve alta na inflação, de 8,9%, em novembro;
d) Duas empresas que têm muito o que comemorar: a Rede D’Or, petrolífera, que concretizou o maior IPO na Bolsa desde 2013, e a startup brasileira TruckPad, a Uber dos caminhões, que teve crescimento de 6.428,57% em outubro, na comparação com 2019.
e) Com o aumento do PIB no último trimestre, a Receita Federal recebeu R$ 7,5 bilhões além do esperado em outubro.
7. O que é correto dizer sobre Samuel Wainer?
a) o jornalista foi morto em setembro de 1980, em uma emboscada armada por antissemitas;
b) foi o fundador da revista Matrizes e do jornal Última Hora;
c) manteve relações próximas com três presidentes da República: Getúlio Vargas, Juscelino Kubischek e João Goulart;
d) escreveu uma autobiografia, Minha Razão de Viver, que nunca foi publicada;
e) seu maior furo foi uma entrevista exclusiva com Ernesto Geisel, na qual o presidente revelou que pretendia fazer a abertura política
8. Sobre a pandemia de Covid no mundo, está certo afirmar que:
a) As emissões de dióxido de carbono (CO2), um dos principais gases com efeito estufa, cresceram em 2020 devido à pandemia de Covid-19;
b) os Estados Unidos são a nação mais atingida, com 15,4 milhões de casos, seguidos pelo Brasil, com 6,7 milhões de contaminações;
c) A Espanha determinou que só serão permitidas dez pessoas reunidas por casa no Natal e no Ano Novo, e viagens entre as regiões espanholas serão proibidas entre 26 de dezembro e 6 de janeiro, exceto para pessoas que vão visitar parentes.
d) Em meio a uma nova alta de casos de Covid-19, o governo da Suécia decretou lockdown radical por duas semanas;
e) O mundo chegou ao total de 15 milhões de mortos pelo novo coronavírus, quase 11 meses após o primeiro óbito oficial notificado, em 11 de janeiro, e cerca de 8 meses depois de a OMS (Organização Mundial da Saúde) declarar que a Covid-19 era uma pandemia, em 11 de março.
9. Há dez anos, o site Wikileaks disponibilizou mais de 250 mil telegramas diplomáticos do Departamento de Estado americano que destrinchavam a política interna de mais de 170 países na primeira década do século 21. Sobre isso, está correto afirmar que:
a) o escândalo ficou conhecido como Watergate;
b) o vazamento levou a uma perseguição contra o francês Julian Assange;
c) há um pedido de extradição de Assange para a França por ter vazado os documentos;
d) em janeiro de 2021, uma corte britânica deve decidir se Julian Assange será extraditado para os Estados Unidos, onde é acusado por espionagem;
e) nenhum jornal de prestígio publicou os documentos vazados por considerar que foram obtidos de forma ilegal
10. Qual das personalidades abaixo não morreu neste ano?
a) o banqueiro Joseph Safra, 82;
b) o artilheiro italiano Paolo Rossi, 64;
c) o jogador argentino Diego Maradona, 60;
d) o economista Milton Friedman, 84;
e) o ator Eduardo Galvão, 58
1. Assinale a alternativa que completa corretamente as lacunas abaixo:
I. A pandemia pôs ___ prova a fé das pessoas.
II. O palestrante participou do seminário ___ convite da entidade.
III. O evento foi divulgado boca __ boca.
a) à – à – à
b) a – a – a
c) à – a – a
d) a – à – a
e) à – a – à
2. Assinale a alternativa que completa corretamente as lacunas abaixo:
I. Quem _____ a denúncia foram eles.
II. Nenhum dos três _______ corretamente à questão.
III. Mais de um manifestante _____________ no protesto.
a) fez – responderam – foi ferido
b) fizeram – respondeu – foram feridos
c) fez – respondeu – foram feridos
d) fizeram – responderam – foi ferido
e) fez – respondeu – foi ferido
3. Assinale a alternativa que completa corretamente as lacunas abaixo:
I. Pediu ______________ R$ 200.
II. Não deixou _________ quantas vezes esteve lá.
III. Dele só esperamos _______ palavras e gestos.
a) emprestados – claras – belos
b) emprestado – claro – belos
c) emprestados – claro – belas
d) emprestados – claras – belas
e) emprestado – claras – belos
4. Assinale a alternativa que completa corretamente as lacunas abaixo:
I. ________ de casos recorrentes de reinfecção.
II. ________ vários casos de reinfecção.
III. ________ poucos minutos para o término da sessão.
a) Trata-se – Houve – Falta
b) Trata-se – Houveram – Faltam
c) Tratam-se – Houve – Faltam
d) Trata-se – Houve – Faltam
e) Tratam-se –Houveram – Falta
5. Assinale a alternativa que completa corretamente as lacunas abaixo:
I. Passeava pelas ruas imaginando grafites sobre as fachadas _____ dos edifícios.
II. Todos sabem que palavras não ___________ a situação.
III. Eu _________ na discussão para evitar que ele continuasse a ofender os demais.
a) cinza – remediam – intervi
b) cinzas – remediam – intervim
c) cinza – remedeiam – intervi
d) cinzas – remedeiam – intervi
e) cinza – remedeiam – intervim
6. Assinale a alternativa que completa corretamente as lacunas abaixo:
I. Ele disse que fazer apologia __ comportamento ilícito é crime.
II. É preciso focar __ problemas mais complexos.
III. Emocionada, a atriz agradeceu ___ amigos envolvidos no projeto.
a) de – nos – os
b) a – os – aos
c) de – os – aos
d) a – nos – os
e) a – nos – aos
7. Assinale a alternativa que completa corretamente as lacunas abaixo:
I. O pai e o filho sempre se desentendiam. As ideias de um iam ______ do outro.
II. As reuniões ___ encerramento ele participou foram produtivas.
III. Quando eles _____, os outros tudo farão para se ________ a seus argumentos.
a) ao encontro das – que o – deporem – oporem
b) de encontro às – de cujo o – depuserem – oporem
c) ao encontro das – cujo – deporem – opuserem
d) de encontro às – de que o – depuserem – oporem
e) de encontro às – de cujo – depuserem – oporem
8. Assinale a alternativa que completa corretamente as lacunas abaixo:
I. Não considerou nesse cálculo ___milhares de mortes decorrentes de outras causas.
II. Jamais ___ permitiria viajar sem um acompanhante.
III. Ela pediu que ___ trouxesse um bonito presente, caso se lembrasse dela.
a) os – lhe – lhe
b) as – o/a – lhe
c) as – o/a – a
d) os – lhe – a
e) as – lhe- lhe
9. Assinale a alternativa que completa corretamente as lacunas abaixo:
I. Policiais suspeitam que as joias __________furtadas.
II. O acusado nega que __________ as joias.
III. A mulher afirma que suas joias ____________.
a) foram – furtou – foram furtadas
b) tenham sido – tenha furtado – foram furtadas
c) tenham sido – furtou – tenham sido furtadas
d) tenham sido – tenha furtado – tenham sido furtadas
e) tenham sido – furtou – foram furtadas
10. Assinale a alternativa que completa corretamente as lacunas abaixo:
I. ___com quem andas e te direi quem és.
II. Enfrentou uma série de ____, mas tudo acabou bem.
III. Sua abordagem do tema _____________entre as demais.
a) Diga-me – reveses – se sobressaía
b) Dize-me – revezes – se sobressaía
c) Diga-me – revezes – se sobressaía
d) Dize-me – reveses – sobressaía
e) Diga-me – revezes – sobressaía
Read the article and answer the questions below.
Five hundred million years ago, a tiny sea creature changed the course of history: It became the first predator. It somehow sensed the presence of another creature nearby, propelled or wiggled its way over, and deliberately ate it.
This new activity of hunting started an evolutionary arms race. Over millions of years, both predators and prey evolved more complex bodies that could sense and move more effectively to catch or elude other creatures.
Eventually, some creatures evolved a command center to run those complex bodies. We call it a brain.
This story of how brains evolved, while admittedly just a sketch, draws attention to a key insight about human beings that is too often overlooked. Your brain’s most important job isn’t thinking; it’s running the systems of your body to keep you alive and well. According to recent findings in neuroscience, even when your brain does produce conscious thoughts and feelings, they are more in service to the needs of managing your body than you realize.
And in stressful times like right now, this curious perspective on your mental life may actually help to lessen your anxieties.
Much of your brain’s activity happens outside your awareness. In every moment, your brain must figure out your body’s needs for the next moment and execute a plan to fill those needs in advance. For example, each morning as you wake, your brain anticipates the energy you’ll need to drag your sorry body out of bed and start your day. It proactively floods your bloodstream with the hormone cortisol, which helps make glucose available for quick energy.
Your brain runs your body using something like a budget. A financial budget tracks money as it’s earned and spent. The budget for your body tracks resources like water, salt and glucose as you gain and lose them. Each action that spends resources, such as standing up, running, and learning, is like a withdrawal from your account. Actions that replenish your resources, such as eating and sleeping, are like deposits.
The scientific name for body budgeting is allostasis. It means automatically predicting and preparing to meet the body’s needs before they arise. Consider what happens when you’re thirsty and drink a glass of water. The water takes about 20 minutes to reach your bloodstream, but you feel less thirsty within mere seconds. What relieves your thirst so quickly? Your brain does. It has learned from past experience that water is a deposit to your body budget that will hydrate you, so your brain quenches your thirst long before the water has any direct effect on your blood.
This budgetary account of how the brain works may seem plausible when it comes to your bodily functions. It may seem less natural to view your mental life as a series of deposits and withdrawals. But your own experience is rarely a guide to your brain’s inner workings. Every thought you have, every feeling of happiness or anger or awe you experience, every kindness you extend and every insult you bear or sling is part of your brain’s calculations as it anticipates and budgets your metabolic needs.
This view of the brain has many implications for understanding human beings. So often, for example, we conceive of ourselves in mental terms, separate from the physical. A bad stomach ache that follows an indulgent meal may send us to the gastroenterologist, but if we experience that same ache during a messy divorce, we may head to a psychotherapist instead. At the gastroenterologist’s office, we experience our discomfort as an underlying physical problem; at the therapist’s office, we experience the same discomfort as anxiety — a psychological disturbance, physically manifested.
In body-budgeting terms, however, this distinction between mental and physical is not meaningful. Anxiety does not cause stomach aches; rather, feelings of anxiety and stomach aches are both ways that human brains make sense of physical discomfort. There is no such thing as a purely mental cause, because every mental experience has roots in the physical budgeting of your body. This is one reason physical actions like taking a deep breath, or getting more sleep, can be surprisingly helpful in addressing problems we traditionally view as psychological.
We’re all living in challenging times, and we’re all at high risk for disrupted body budgets. If you feel weary from the pandemic and you’re battling a lack of motivation, consider your situation from a body-budgeting perspective. Your burden may feel lighter if you understand your discomfort as something physical. When an unpleasant thought pops into your head, like “I can’t take this craziness anymore,” ask yourself body- budgeting questions. “Did I get enough sleep last night? Am I dehydrated? Should I take a walk? Call a friend? Because I could use a deposit or two in my body budget.”
This is not a semantic game. It’s about making new meaning from your physical sensations to guide your actions.
I’m not saying you can snap your fingers and dissolve deep misery, or sweep away depression with a change of perspective. I’m suggesting that it’s possible to acknowledge what your brain is actually doing and take some comfort from it. Your brain is not for thinking. Everything that it conjures, from thoughts to emotions to dreams, is in the service of body budgeting. This perspective, adopted judiciously, can be a source of resilience in challenging times.
(Fonte: New York Times, 23 de novembro, 2020, adaptado)
After reading the article, answer the question below.
1. Choose the correct statement.
a) The author fully explains the origin of the brain solely as a result of the act of creatures escaping predators.
b) The activity of hunting resulted in a race between creatures to become stronger, which lead to less complex bodies.
c) The author affirms that we tend to fail to notice the brain concerning its function of keeping our bodies alive and well.
d) The author highlights the importance of the brain regarding our mental health, especially during anxious times.
2. Read the excerpt above.
Each action that spends resources, such as standing up, running, and learning, is like a withdrawal from your account. Actions that replenish your resources, such as eating and sleeping, are like deposits.
The words in bold can be replaced without losing their original meaning in the article by:
a) abolition and freshen
b) exporting and refill
c) removing and reload
d) putting out and refresh
3. Choose the correct statement(s)
I. Allostasis is basically when you brain anticipates the future needs of our body.
II. We feel less thirsty right after drinking water because it spreads quickly in our blood.
III. The concept of applying budgetary account to explain the functioning of our mind and body seems plausible.
c) II, III
4. Choose the incorrect statement(s)
According to the author,
I. Feelings cannot be totally responsible for a disease since mental experiences are connected to our bodies.
II. One can solve mental issues such as depression or deep misery through questioning our body behaviors, such as sleep, hydration, before blaming it on our mind.
III. Considering your brain from a body-budgeting perspective, may help you relieve some of the burdens caused by stressful days like these pandemic ones.
d) All of them are correct.
Read the article and answer the questions below.
This has not been a very good year for sleep.
With the coronavirus pandemic, school and work disruptions and a contentious election season contributing to countless sleepless nights, sleep experts have encouraged people to adopt a variety of measures to overcome their stress-related insomnia. Among their recommendations: engage in regular exercise, establish a nightly bedtime routine and cut back on screen time and social media.
But many people may be overlooking another important factor in poor sleep: diet. A growing body of research suggests that the foods you eat can affect how well you sleep, and your sleep patterns can affect your dietary choices.
Researchers have found that eating a diet that is high in sugar, saturated fat and processed carbohydrates can disrupt your sleep, while eating more plants, fiber and foods rich in unsaturated fat — such as nuts, olive oil, fish and avocados — seems to have the opposite effect, helping to promote sound sleep.
Much of what we know about sleep and diet comes from large epidemiological studies that, over the years, have found that people who suffer from consistently bad sleep tend to have poorer quality diets, with less protein, fewer fruits and vegetables, and a higher intake of added sugar from foods like sugary beverages, desserts and ultra-processed foods. But by their nature, epidemiological studies can show only correlations, not cause and effect. They cannot explain, for example, whether poor diet precedes and leads to poor sleep, or the reverse.
To get a better understanding of the relationship between diet and sleep, some researchers have turned to randomized controlled trials in which they tell participants what to eat and then look for changes in their sleep. A number of studies have looked at the impact of a diverse array of individual foods, from warm milk to fruit juice. But those studies often have been small and not very rigorous.
Some of these trials have also been funded by the food industry, which can bias results. One study funded by Zespri International, the world’s largest marketer of kiwi fruit, for example, found that people assigned to eat two kiwis an hour before their bedtime every night for four weeks had improvements in their sleep onset, duration and efficiency. The authors of the study attributed their findings in part to an “abundance” of antioxidants in kiwis. But importantly, the study lacked a control group, so it is possible that any benefits could have resulted from the placebo effect.
Other studies funded by the cherry industry have found that drinking tart cherry juice can modestly improve sleep in people with insomnia, supposedly by promoting tryptophan, one of the building blocks of the sleep- regulating hormone melatonin. Tryptophan is an amino acid found in many foods, including dairy and turkey, which is one of the reasons commonly given for why so many of us feel so sleepy after our Thanksgiving feasts. But tryptophan has to cross the blood-brain barrier to have any soporific effects, and in the presence of other amino acids found in food it ends up competing, largely unsuccessfully, for absorption. Studies show that eating protein-rich foods such as milk and turkey on their own actually decreases the ability of tryptophan to cross the blood-brain barrier.
One way to enhance tryptophan’s uptake is to pair foods that contain it with carbohydrates. That combination stimulates the release of insulin, which causes competing amino acids to be absorbed by muscles, in turn making it easier for tryptophan to cross into the brain, said Marie-Pierre St-Onge, an associate professor of nutritional medicine at Columbia University Irving Medical Center and the director of the Sleep Center of Excellence at Columbia.
Dr. St-Onge has spent years studying the relationship between diet and sleep. Her work suggests that rather than emphasizing one or two specific foods with supposedly sleep-inducing properties, it is better to focus on the overall quality of your diet. In one randomized clinical trial, she and her colleagues recruited 26 healthy adults and controlled what they ate for four days, providing them regular meals prepared by nutritionists while also monitoring how they slept at night. On the fifth day, the subjects were allowed to eat whatever they wanted.
The researchers discovered that eating more saturated fat and less fiber from foods like vegetables, fruits and whole grains led to reductions in slow-wave sleep, which is the deep, restorative kind. In general, clinical trials have also found that carbohydrates have a significant impact on sleep: People tend to fall asleep much faster at night when they consume a high-carbohydrate diet compared to when they consume a high-fat or high- protein diet. That may have something to do with carbs helping tryptophan cross into the brain more easily.
But the quality of carbs matters. In fact, they can be a double-edged sword when it comes to slumber. Dr. St- Onge has found in her research that when people eat more sugar and simple carbs — such as white bread, bagels, pastries and pasta — they wake up more frequently throughout the night. In other words, eating carbs may help you fall asleep faster, but it is best to consume “complex” carbs that contain fiber, which may help you obtain more deep, restorative sleep.
“Complex carbohydrates provide a more stable blood sugar level,” said Dr. St-Onge. “So if blood sugar levels are more stable at night, that could be the reason complex carbohydrates are associated with better sleep.”
One example of a dietary pattern that may be optimal for better sleep is the Mediterranean diet, which emphasizes such foods as vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, seafood, poultry, yogurt, herbs and spices and olive oil. Large observational studies have found that people who follow this type of dietary pattern are less likely to suffer from insomnia and short sleep, though more research is needed to confirm the correlation.
But the relationship between poor diet and bad sleep is a two-way street: Scientists have found that as people lose sleep, they experience physiological changes that can nudge them to seek out junk food. In clinical trials, healthy adults who are allowed to sleep only four or five hours a night end up consuming more calories and snacking more frequently throughout the day. They experience significantly more hunger and their preference for sweet foods increases.
In men, sleep deprivation stimulates increased levels of ghrelin, the so-called hunger hormone, while in women, restricting sleep leads to lower levels of GLP-1, a hormone that signals satiety,
“So in men, short sleep promotes greater appetite and desire to eat, and in women there is less of a signal that makes you stop eating,” said Dr. St-Onge.
Changes also occur in the brain. Dr. St-Onge found that when men and women were restricted to four hours of nightly sleep for five nights in a row, they had greater activation in reward centers of the brain in response to pepperoni pizza, doughnuts and candy compared to healthy foods such as carrots, yogurt, oatmeal and fruit. After five nights of normal sleep, however, this pattern of stronger brain responses to the junk food disappeared.
Another study, led by researchers at King’s College London, also demonstrated how proper sleep can increase your willpower to avoid unhealthy foods. It found that habitually short sleepers who went through a program to help them sleep longer — resulting in their getting roughly an hour of additional sleep each night — had improvements in their diet. The most striking change was that they cut about 10 grams of added sugar from their diets each day, the equivalent of about two and a half teaspoons.
The takeaway is that diet and sleep are entwined. Improving one can help you improve the other and vice versa, creating a positive cycle where they perpetuate one another, said Dr. Susan Redline, a senior physician at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital and a professor of sleep medicine at Harvard Medical School who studies diet and sleep disorders.
“The best way to approach health is to emphasize a healthy diet and healthy sleep,” she added. “These are two very important health behaviors that can reinforce each other.”
(New York Times, 10 de Dezembro, 2020, adaptado)
5. According to the article, which statements are true:
I. According to epidemiological studies, poor sleep is intertwined with diets with low quality.
II. There is a lack of more rigorous and wider studies concerning sleep and diets. Also too many of the studies have been sponsored by the food industry, which can interfere in the results
III. Epidemiological studies are not reliable because they only focus on cause and effect.
a)I, II, III
b) I, II
c) II, III
d) I, III
6. Which statement(s) are true about tryptophan?
I. Is one of the components of the hormone melatonin, which is a sleep-regulating drug.
II.Is quite present during Thanksgiving since it can be found in the turkey.
III. Can only make one feel sleepy if it is able to go through our blood-brain barrier, which can only be possible with the help of carbohydrates.
a) I, II
7. Choose the correct statement.
A) The author mentions the Mediterranean diet to emphasize an eating pattern connected to the type of weather.
b) The Mediterranean diet is linked to better sleeping patterns, despite insufficient research regarding the connection.
c) People who lose sleep tend to eat more junk food because they stay awake for more time.
d) Men and women feel hungry, especially after short sleeping periods.
Read the article and answer the questions below.
When Dr. Gbenga Ogedegbe began to research coronavirus infections among Black and Hispanic patients, he thought he knew what he would find. Infected Black and Hispanic patients would be more likely to be hospitalized, compared with white patients, and more likely to die.
Dr. Ogedegbe, the director of the division of health and behavior at New York University’s Grossman School of Medicine, and his colleagues reviewed the medical records of 11,547 patients in the N.Y.U. Langone Health system who were tested for coronavirus infection between March 1 and April 8.
After accounting for various disparities, Dr. Ogedegbe found that infected Black and Hispanic patients were no more likely than white patients to be hospitalized. If hospitalized, Black patients had a slightly lower risk of dying.
The study was published in the journal JAMA Network Open. Three other recent large studies have come to similarly surprising conclusions.
The new findings do not contradict an enormous body of research showing that Black and Hispanic Americans are more likely to be affected by the pandemic, compared with white people. The coronavirus is more prevalent in minority communities, and infections, illnesses and deaths have occurred in these groups in disproportionate numbers.
But the new studies do suggest that there is no innate vulnerability to the virus among Black and Hispanic Americans, Dr. Ogedegbe and other experts said. Instead, these groups are more often exposed because of social and environmental factors.
Among many other vulnerabilities, Black and Hispanic communities and households tend to be more crowded; many people work jobs requiring frequent contact with others and rely on public transportation. Access to health care is poorer than among white Americans, and rates of underlying conditions are much higher.
“To me, these results make it clear that the disparities in mortality that we see are even more appalling,” said Jon Zelner, an epidemiologist at the University of Michigan who led one of the new studies.
The toll on Black and Hispanic Americans “could easily have been ameliorated in advance of the pandemic by a less threadbare and cruel approach to social welfare and health care in the U.S.,” he added. “Even failing that, so much of this could have been avoided.”
For example, the federal government could have protected citizens from risky work situations by providing income subsidies allowing them to stay home, Dr. Zelner said. The government could have ensured adequate protective equipment to workers in nursing homes and long-term care facilities.
Dr. Zelner and his colleagues examined data on 49,701 coronavirus patients in Michigan, hospitalized and not, from March until June. In this population, the case fatality rate was the same for Black and white patients: 11 percent.
(The high rate reflects the fact that the incidence in Michigan early in the epidemic was dominated by older people, Dr. Zelner said. And the data involve detected cases, rather than all infections during this period, a time when there was much less testing.)
A study of patients in Veterans Affairs hospitals, led by Dr. Christopher Rentsch of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and researchers at the V.A., analyzed the health records of more than five million patients in more than 1,200 facilities.
Some 16,317 tested positive for the coronavirus. Among them, Dr. Rentsch found, there was no difference in mortality rates between patients who were white, Black or Hispanic.
The investigators had expected that underlying health conditions would lead to a higher fatality rate among Black and Hispanic patients, who are more likely to have conditions like obesity and high blood pressure that raise the risk of severe Covid-19.
But in the analysis of the death rate, those conditions “barely made it move,” Dr. Rentsch said. Health disparities by race among V.A. patients, though, tend to be smaller than in Americans over all, he cautioned.
A study in New Orleans, led by Dr. Eboni Price-Haywood, who directs the Ochsner’s Center for Outcomes and Health Services Research, included the 3,481 patients who tested positive for the coronavirus between March 1 and April 11.
Black and white patients had the same case fatality rate, she and her colleagues found.
“It’s always perplexing when people read the paper,” Dr. Price-Haywood said in an interview. But, she added, by the time someone was sick enough to be hospitalized, race became irrelevant.
“If you were fragile enough to be admitted, you were fragile enough to die,” Dr. Price-Haywood said.
The four studies did confirm stark differences in the incidence of coronavirus infection among minority and white patients.
In Dr. Ogedegbe’s study, Black and Hispanic patients were 60 to 70 percent more likely than white ones to be infected. In the research in Michigan, the incidence of infection among Black people was four times higher than that among white people.
“If you were to substitute the white incidence rates for Black ones, you would see an 83 percent reduction in mortality,” Dr. Zelner said.
In the V.A. study, nine of 1,000 white veterans had a positive coronavirus test, compared with 16.4 of 1,000 among Black patients. In New Orleans, Black patients accounted for 76.9 percent of those hospitalized with Covid-19, although they made up just 31 percent of the health system’s population.
“The larger issue is the role of social determinants of health,” Dr. Price-Haywood said. “Race is a social construct, not biological.”
8. Read the statements below and choose the correct one(s)
According to the research:
I. Infected Black and Hispanic patients are more likely to be hospitalized and more likely to die compared to white patients.
II. Infected Black and Hispanic patients were as likely as white patients to be hospitalized. If hospitalized, Black patients had a moderately lower risk of dying.
III. Black and Hispanics are more prone to be affected by the pandemic
a. I, II, III
b. I, II
9. Read the excerpt below.
But the new studies do suggest that there is no innate vulnerability to the virus among Black and Hispanic Americans, Dr. Ogedegbe and other experts said
The word in bold “innate” could be replaced by which word without losing its meaning in the sentence?
10. Read the statements below.
I. Despite Black and Hispanic patients having a tendency to have more underlying health conditions, that did not affect substantially the difference in the number of deaths between them and the white patients.
II. The incidence of the disease is considerably more common among minorities mainly due to social-economic reasons.
III. The high rate of death in the state of Michigan is justified by the majority of the covid-19 cases being inflicted in the elderly and also because the data collected involved only the detected cases.
Which statement is false?
d)All of them are correct.